Glossary of Terms

# | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
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3 Year Sales Growth
Found in the Company Profile Report / Sales Information section, 3 Year Sales Growth is computed by taking Trend Sales minus the Base Sales and dividing this by the Base Sales figure. Note, D&B trend sales and 3 year sales growth figures are only updated once on an annual basis.
A
Accuracy
DUNSRight is the data quality process that ensures that you get the most accurate and complete information available. Learn more about D&B Data Quality.
ActivityScope
The ActivityScope Report tells customers the number and type of companies that are accessing their credit file. The ActivityScope Report also provides customers with their current business ratings, scores, evaluations and 12 months of monitoring performance scores (Rating, Paydex) and predictive scores (credit score, financial stress score, and supplier evaluation).
ActivityScope Light
ActivityScope Light allows customers to review how other companies are using D&B information about their company. It allows them to see how many requests are being received on their business, and from what types of companies. ActivityScope Light also allows customers to see their current ratings, scores, and evaluations.
ActivityTrac
ActivityTrac is a service that provides your company with information on the types of D&B reports that are ordered on your business. You will know at all times what reports are being ordered, what they mean and how they are used by others. This service will help you further understand D&B ratings and their implications to your business.
Address Labels
An output option when purchasing Marketing Lists. This output includes one contact name and address with your choice of label format.
Advanced Search
Advanced search provides expanded searching options to help you get more accurate results. Search by address, city/state, phone number or DUNS number.
Alerts
A Monthly subscription that allows you to monitor an unlimited number of companies for changes to their D&B business file. You will receive notification via email and on the site when changes occur in a company's D&B business file. This information is stored in your Portfolio.
Annual Sales
See sales.
Archived Report (or Report Storage)
Reports and marketing lists are stored for 180 days. The Credit eValuator Plus, Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports can be stored for up to 360 days if you have purchased the Auto-Refresh option on these reports.
Auto-Refresh
When you purchase D&B's Auto-Refresh service, your Credit eValuator Plus, Comprehensive Insight Plus, SelfMonitor, or Business Information Report will be refreshed automatically every time you view it for a full year. Auto-Refresh alleviates the administrative burden of manually tracking and monitoring the large volume of new developments affecting companies you are watching. D&B updates its database over 1 million times a day with new information on company payment experiences, credit scores, address and contact information, public filings, and financials. With Auto-Refresh, you can be confident that you are receiving the most up-to-date information available on the key companies that you track.
Average High Credit / Highest Credit
Average and highest credit levels granted and a PAYDEX comparison of the company's days beyond terms with that of the industry as a whole help put your risk in perspective.
B
Banking Section
Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, this section may include information on a company's access to additional financial capital, such as accounts, loans and specific banking relationships, as well as bank evaluations (when available) of whether the relation(s) are satisfactory. Content may not represent the full extent of the firm's banking relationships, nor the primary bank used by the business.
Bankruptcy
A proceeding under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code, in which either a debtor files a bankruptcy petition and voluntarily seeks protection from creditors, or creditors file a bankruptcy petition against a debtor to force the debtor to pay debts owed to them.
Base Sales
Found in the Company Profile Report / Sales Information section, Base Sales is the first (older) year of the three year trend period.
BIR
The BIR provides an overall profile of a company, including financial information, payment history and trends, history of a business, ownership details, operational information, and details on related firms and special events (such as business moves, fires and other disasters, and quarterly performance). It also includes the D&B Rating which shows the financial size (net worth) of a business and a risk indicator
Branch
A branch is a secondary location of a business. It has no legal responsibility for its debts, even though bills may be paid from the branch location. It will have the same legal business name as its headquarters, although branches frequently operate under a different trade style. A branch may be located at the same address as the headquarters if it has a unique trade style and unique operations. In such cases, the branch will appear to be a duplicate of the headquarters record.
Business Advantage
D&B's premier subscription plan for frequent users who want the best information available when making important decisions about their business.
Business Background
Information about ownership, history and principals of this business, and the operrations and location of the business. See History and Operations sections...
Business Background Report
The Business Background Report provides a brief business summary and information about the background of a company and its senior management. Data elements may include company history, profiles of business principals, parent company, subsidiary, branch affiliations and operational highlights (including terms of sales, territory, company locations, number of employees and limited financial information). The Business Background Report offers a convenient "snapshot" of a business as a prelude to relationship building and/or detailed analysis of company performance.
BusinesScope
The BusinesScope Report provides four quarterly reports that compare your business's financial performance to other companies in the same industry and of similar size. Each report is divided into 3 sections:
  • Analysis of the your company's ability to pay its bills versus industry benchmarks.
  • Analysis and commentary (if available) of your company¿s financial statements versus industry benchmarks.
  • Detailed financial analysis of 14 key profitability, solvency, and efficiency ratios for your company versus industry benchmarks.
Business Information Report (BIR or eBIR)
The BIR provides an overall profile of a company, including financial information, payment history and trends, history of a business, ownership details, operational information, and details on related firms and special events (such as business moves, fires and other disasters, and quarterly performance). It also includes the D&B Rating which shows the financial size (net worth) of a business and a risk indicator.
Business Registration
A business registration is information filed by a corporation or limited liability company with the Secretary of State or other state agency in order to obtain a state charter to do business within that state as a corporation or limited liability company.
C
C/V Scope
C/V Scope allows customers the opportunity to be notified when significant changes are made within 10 reports of other companies. Significant changes include:
  • The business' credit rating
  • Suits, Liens or Judgments against the business
  • Changes in the Paydex score (which indicates how quickly your company pays its bills)
  • Changes to the financial statements
  • Any special event, or other significant news involving the business

  • Every notification includes detailed information about the change that occurred.

    Cancellation
    To cancel an order or your membership, please contact D&B Solutions Customer Service via email or telephone at (855) 457-1670.
    Certificate of Exemption
    See Tax Exempt Certificate.
    Change Notices
    A Monthly subscription that allows you to monitor an unlimited number of companies for changes to their D&B business file. You will receive notification via email and on the site when changes occur in a company's D&B business file. This information is stored in your Portfolio.
    CID
    For your security, we collect the customer 3 or 4 digit verification number from your bank card to prevent the fraudulent use of your account. The customer verification number is a non-embossed number located on your card that cannot be obtained easily by using an imprint of your card or simply copying down the account number. This verification code is called CID for American Express cards, and CVC2 or CVV2 for Visa, MasterCard and Discover. This verification number helps us to validate that this card is in your possession and that the number is legitimate.
    Collection Services
    Starting collection activities against a company is a serious action which may result in a "Placed For Collection" notice in this company's D&B business report. You have a choice of escalating collection services and careful thought is needed about what course of action you wish to initiate. The Contingent Collection Service includes both written communications (DUNS Demand Letter Series) and telephone calls by D&B Receivable Management Services (RMS) collectors on your behalf. A single DunsDemand Letter or DunsDemand Letter Series results in demand letters sent on D&B RMS letterhead with a tear-off remittance included for your customers to mail their payment directly to you. Please note that once Contingent Collections begins, you may not withdraw the claim until determined to be close by D&B RMS. If payment is sent directly to you, you remain responsible for fees charged by D&B Receivables.

    All requests for refunds or cancellations on collections products will be reviewed by D&B RMS Customer Support on a case-by-case basis. If the customer withdraws an account, settles directly or accepts returned merchandise after the collection recovery process has started, the customer will be charged the collection rate fee or the cost for demand letter services agreed to at the time of placement and within the terms agreed to at time of registration. If you have questions concerning your collection account, please call D&B RMS at (855) 457-1670 to speak with a customer care representative.
    Commercial Credit Score (CCS)
    D&B's Commercial Credit Score (CCS) predicts the likelihood that a company will, over the next 12 months:
    • Pay its bills in a severely delinquent manner (91 days or more past terms),
    • Obtain legal relief from creditors, OR
    • Cease operations without paying all creditors in full.
    A severely delinquent firm is defined as a business with at least 25% of its payments slow and at least 10% of its payments 91 days or more past due.
    This information is classified into a Commercial Credit Score (101-670), Commercial Credit Score Class (1-5), and Commercial Credit Score Percentile (1-100).
    • Score - The score represents the probability of delinquency for a company. Scores range from 101 to 670, where 101 represents the highest probability and 670 represents the lowest probability of delinquency.
    • Risk Class - Separates businesses into five distinct risk groups where 1 represents businesses that have the lowest probability of severe delinquency, and 5 represents businesses with the highest probability. The credit score class allows you to quickly segment new and existing accounts according to risk to determine appropriate marketing or credit policies.
    • Percentile Norms - Represent the average score and percentile for all scorable companies with similar demographics, and they can be used to benchmark where the company stands relative to the norm for its peer group.
    Distribution of Commercial Credit Score Risk Class
    The table below illustrates the distribution of the Commercial Credit Score Class in the D&B Business Universe. In addition, this table displays their associated Percentile Ranking and Score, along with the Delinquency Rate.
    Credit Score Risk Class % of Businesses within this Risk Class Credit Score Percentile Commercial Credit Score Delinquency Rate
    1 10 91 - 100 580-670 1.1%
    2 20 71 - 90 530-579 2.5%
    3 40 31 - 70 481-529 5.8%
    4 20 11 - 30 453-480 9.4%
    5 10 1 - 10 101-452 53.1%
    Company Monitoring
    A Monthly subscription that allows you to monitor an unlimited number of companies for changes to their D&B business file. You will receive notification via email and on the site when changes occur in a company's D&B business file. This information is stored in your Portfolio.
    Company Profile
    The Company Profile is an element in the Credit eValuator Plus that shows information on how many years a company has been in business, its chief executive or principle officer(s), number of employees, type of business, D&B D-U-N-S Number and line of business.
    Company Profile Report
    The Company Profile Report provides an expanded directory display for a business. This report can include sales and sales trend information, business size, expanded SIC and line of business details, key principals, and business URLs.
    Comprehensive Insight Plus Report
    The Comprehensive Insight Plus Report is our most insightful, in-depth evaluation of a company's short/long term financial stability and creditworthiness. This report offers a detailed view of a company's financial position, comparisons to industry norms and is the only credit report that includes scores and analysis that predict future payment habits and financial stability.
    Contingent Collections
    The Contingent Collection Service escalates the effort and importance of your collections action. This service combines both written communications (DunsDemand Letter Series) and telephone calls by D&B Receivable Management Services (RMS) collectors on your behalf to recover your uncollected debts. Feedback from these calls is sent to you via email updates. "Skip Tracing" is also done to locate debtors no longer at the location you have provided. Your order will be received by D&B RMS and the collection process started 48-72 hours after the placement of your order. You will be notified when the DunsDemand Letters have been sent, and you will receive updates from the collector on the progress of your order. These confirmations and updates will be sent via an email to you and the status of your collections effort can be viewed in your Portfolio.
    Control Date
    The year the present management took control. For example, if a business was started in 1980 but was sold to new owners in 1995, the Control Date will be 1995.
    CreditBuilder
    The CreditBuilder service provides your company with a full D&B credit file, which can be a critical part of the decision process when you're trying to obtain a loan or make purchases on credit. This is an important step in creating a business credit file separate from your personal credit file (if applicable). You will provide D&B with financial information, business history, antecedents on the principals and expanded information about the operations of your business. D&B will contact the banks and suppliers you provide as references for information, and complete a public records and trade payment check on your business. When completed, you will be emailed a copy of the D&B Business Information Report. In addition, you will receive twelve months of free monitoring on your company and will be notified when changes to your credit file occur.
    Credit Capacity Summary
    Reviews an analysis of credit capacity (size, overall financial condition, payment capacity) to gauge the firm's ability to take on additional credit.
    Credit Basics
    D&B's subscription plan that keeps the occasional user informed when making key risk decisions.
    Credit eValuator
    The Credit eValuator Report is a summary credit report that shows a company's likelihood or risk of late payment, their payment performance trend, business size and ownership and summary of open/closed public filings.
    Credit eValuator Plus
    The Credit eValuator Plus Report contains all of the elements in the standard Credit eValuator Report plus the Credit Limit Recommendation and the Payment Trend Profile Report.
    Credit Limit Recommendation
    Included with the Credit eValuator Plus, Business Information, SelfMonitor, and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the D&B Credit Limit Recommendation is intended to help you more easily manage your credit decisions. It provides two recommended dollar guidelines: (1) A conservative limit, which suggests a dollar benchmark if your policy is to extend less credit to minimize risk and (2) An aggressive limit, which suggests a dollar benchmark if your policy is to extend more credit with potentially more risk.

    The dollar guideline amounts are based on a historical analysis of the credit demand of customers in D&B's U.S. payments database who have a similar profile to the business you are evaluating in respect to employee size and industry. The guidelines do not address whether a particular business can pay that amount or whether a particular customer's total credit limit has been achieved (based on their total trade experiences and outstanding balances.) Each set of limits is accompanied by an assessment of the risk category a business falls into, or D&B's assessment of how likely they are to continue to pay their obligations within terms and their likelihood of undergoing financial stress in the next 12 months. The risk category is created using D&B's risk modeling methodology and is based on the company's credit and financial stress scores. See Predictive Scoring for more information.

    Generally speaking, D&B's standard limit recommendations are less applicable for very large credit lines - over one million dollars - and when assessing very large organizations, which may pay slowly as a rule. You are most likely to find the recommended limits useful for small to medium-large size decisions. The recommended limits also are useful when you are dealing with a new customer or prospect, one with whom you do not have a previously established credit record. The recommended limits, while not customized to every situation, create useful default starting points.
    Credit Score Class
    Assesses the company's probable payment habits. A 1 to 5 Credit Score Class indicated the likelihood of an account becoming delinquent within the next 12 months. A 1 denotes low risk, 5 denotes high risk, and 0 denotes open bankruptcy and/or out of business at this location.
    Credit Score Norms
    Compares the company's Credit Score Class to that of firms with similar demographic characteristics.
    Credit Score Percentile

    D&B's Commercial Credit Score is designed to predict the likelihood that a company will pay its bills in a severely delinquent manner (90 days or more past terms), obtain legal relief from creditors or cease operations without paying all creditors in full over th e next 12 months, based on the information in D&B's files. A severely delinquent firm is defined as a business with at least 25% of its payments slow and at least 10% of its payments 90 days or more past due.                   

     

    The score models are based upon the observed characteristics of hundreds of thousands of businesses in D&B's database and the relationship these characteristics have to the probability of a company experiencing severe delinquency over a period of 12 months.

     

    Key to Credit Score Class and Percentile:

    Score Class          Score Percentile          Credit Score Level - Degree of Risk of

       Value                        Value                    Delinquent Payment over the Next 12 Months

         1                          91 - 100                  Low

         2                          71 - 90                     Moderate

         3                          31 - 70                    Average

         4                          11 - 30                    Significant

         5                          1 - 10                      High

         0                              0                          Discontinued at th e location, indication

                                       & nbsp;                                 of open bankruptcy or confirmed high risk

     

    The Commercial Credit Score uses statistical probabilities to classify companies into three risk classifications , which provide different views of the same underlying data. In most cases, the Credit Score Class is your best choice for at-a-glance risk assessment. The mo re detailed percentile and score classifications provide more granular views of this information, which can provide a more specific classification when you wan t to see precisely where a business falls on the spectrum of risk. The classifications are:

    1. A "Class" of 1 - 5, which separates all businesses D&B has credit scores for into five distinct risk groups where a one (1) represents businesses that have the lowest probability o f severe delinquency, and a five (5) represents businesses with the highest probability of severe delinquency. This Class enables you to quickly assess a new or existing account to determine appropriate risk policies.

    2. A "Percentile" of 1 - 100, where a 1 represents businesses that have the highest probability of severe delinquency, and a 100 represents businesses with the lowest probability of severe delinquency. This Percentile illustrates where a company falls among businesses in the D&B information base, and is most effectively used to ran k order portfolios from highest to lowest risk of business failure.

    3. A "Score" of 101 - 670, where a 101 represents businesses that have the highest probability of severe delinquency, and a 670 represents businesses with the lowest probability of severe delinquency. This score classification enables you to use more granular cutoffs if you are using the data from the Comprehensive Report as part of a more automated decision-making process.

    Credit Score Summary
    Reviews an analysis of credit capacity (size, overall financial condition, payment capacity) to gauge the firm's ability to take on additional credit.
    CreditX
    CreditX provides a company with its potential credit limit and gives an analysis of the criteria used to determine that limit with suggestions for increasing business performance. The company's D&B credit score is monitored for 12 months.
    Customer Profile Report
    Customer Profile Report gives you the advantage of knowing how the others in your industry are performing. The Customer Profile Report provides an in-depth analysis of your industry based on your SIC and will help you benchmark your company¿s performance/trends against your competition. This service offers:
  • An in-depth comparison of your business with others in the industry
  • Financial Industry Trends
  • National Market Overview
  • Your D&B Credit Score
  • An analysis of your company¿s payment history, as reported to D&B
  • Public records and other details about your business
  • Customer Service
    The Customer Service page contains FAQs and information on how to contact our Customer Service group.
    CVC2
    For your security, we collect the customer 3 or 4 digit verification number from your bank card to prevent the fraudulent use of your account. The customer verification number is a non-embossed number located on your card that cannot be obtained easily by using an imprint of your card or simply copying down the account number. This verification code is called CID for American Express cards, and CVC2 or CVV2 for Visa, MasterCard and Discover. This verification number helps us to validate that this card is in your possession and that the number is legitimate.
    CVV2
    For your security, we collect the customer 3 or 4 digit verification number from your bank card to prevent the fraudulent use of your account. The customer verification number is a non-embossed number located on your card that cannot be obtained easily by using an imprint of your card or simply copying down the account number. This verification code is called CID for American Express cards, and CVC2 or CVV2 for Visa, MasterCard and Discover. This verification number helps us to validate that this card is in your possession and that the number is legitimate.
    D
    Detailed Directory
    The Detailed Directory is an output option when purchasing Marketing Lists. This output includes up to three contact names, telephone number, industry, address, company age and size.
    Direct Pay Permit
    Allows a purchaser to self-assess and remit the tax in a particular state on their own.
    Division
    A division is an operating unit of a business entity with a specific divisional name performing a specific activity normally different than the activity performed at the headquarters. A division is different than a branch in that the division is operated like a separate and unique entity (it may have divisional officers; however, it is not legally a separate entity).
    DNBi
    DNBi is an interactive, customizable Web application that provides you with the most complete and up-to-date D&B information. DNBi has a variety of independent pieces that can be purchased together or separately, such as DNBi core for comprehensive portfolio analysis and monitoring or DNBi SelfMonitor for analysis and monitoring of your own business.
    DNBi CreditAdvisor
    DNBi CreditAdvisor provides small businesses access to D&B's world-leading information and insight that, until recently, was only available to larger companies. DNBi CreditAdvisor delivers easy-to-understand reports on companies' payment history, risk profiles, and corporate trends. This service also provides educational resources on interpreting this data, as well as the ability to monitor and receive proactive alerts on key prospects, customers, suppliers, and business partners.
    DNBi SelfMonitor
    DNBi SelfMonitor provides you with the latest information that your vendors, banks, suppliers and customers see when they access your D&B credit information to make critical decisions regarding your business. The DNBi SelfMonitor provides the most insightful, in-depth evaluation of your company's short/long term financial stability and creditworthiness. It offers a detailed view of a company's financial position including a Risk of Late Payment Dial, Payment Performance Trend Arrow, Payment Trend Profile Report, and Credit Limit Recommendation, in addition to a QuickTour, which shows you how to use each data element in the report to answer specific questions about your business. DNBi SelfMonitor also comes with the Auto-Refresh feature, which means that you will receive the most up-to-date information available from D&B every time you access your report for a full year.
    DNBi SelfMonitor Plus - Benchmarking
    DNBi SelfMonitor Plus - Benchmarking builds on the basic DNBi SelfMonitor plus provides comparisons of your companie's financials with that of your industry overall.
    DNBi SelfMonitor Plus - Inquiries
    DNBi SelfMonitor Plus - Inquiries builds on the basic DNBi SelfMonitor plus tells you the number and type of companies that are accessing your credit file within a certain time frame. You will also find out what types of reports are being ordered on you.
    DNBi SelfMonitor Premium
    DNBi SelfMonitor Premium combines all the information of the basic DNBi SelfMonitor, DNBi SelfMonitor Plus - Inquiries and Benchmarking and adds direct comparisons with companies of your choice. You can actively manage the peers you are choosing for comparison.
    D&B Rating
    The D&B Rating can help you quickly assess a firm's size and composite credit appraisal, based on information in a company's interim or fiscal balance sheet and an overall evaluation of the firm's creditworthiness.

    The "5A" to "HH" Rating Classifications reflect company size based on worth or equity as computed by D&B. Company size can be an effective indicator of credit capacity. These Ratings are assigned to businesses that have supplied D&B with a current financial statemen t.

    The Composite Credit Appraisal is a number, 1 through 4, that makes up the second half of the company's rating and reflects D&B's overall assessment of that firm's creditworthiness. The Composite Credit Appraisal is based on D&B’s analysis of company payments, financial inform ation, public records, business age and other important factors (when available).

    Note: A "2" is the highest Composite Credit Appraisal a company not supplying D&B with current financial information can receive.
    The "1R" and "2R" Rating categories refl ect company size based on the total number of employees for the business. They are assigned to company files that do not contain a current financial statemen t.

    ER (Employee Range) Ratings apply to certain lines of business that do not lend themselves to classification under the D&B Rating system. Instead, we assign these types of businesses an Employee Range symbol base d on the number of people employed. No other significance should be attached to this symbol.

    For example, a rating of "ER7" means there are between fi ve and nine employees in the company. "ERN" should not be interpreted negatively. It simply means we do not have information indicating how many people are employed at this firm.

    The D&B Rating field in a report may also display the following designations when certain conditions are present:
    The '- -' Symbol: This rep resents the absence of a D&B Rating and should not be interpreted as indicating that credit should be denied. It means that the information available to D&B does not permit us to classify the company within our Rating Key and that further inquir y should be made before reaching a credit decision. Some reasons for using the "- -" symbol include: deficit net worth, bankruptcy proceedings, lack of sufficient payment information or incomplete history indicator.
    DS (DUNS Support): This ind icates that the information available to D&B does not permit us to classify the company within our Rating Key. When ordering these reports, an investigation can be performed and results sent to you at your request for an additional fee.
    INV (Investigation Being Conducted): When an "INV" appears, it means an investigation is being conducted on this business to get the most current details.
    NQ (Not Quoted): This is generally assigned when a business has been confirmed as no longer active at the location, or when D&B is unable to confirm active operations. It may also appear on some branch reports, when the branch is located in the same city as the headquarters.

    Rating Classification Composite Credit Appraisal
    (Based on Worth from Interim or Fiscal Balance Sheet)   High Good Fair Limited
    5A
    $50,000,000
      and over
      1 2 3 4
    4A
    10,000,000
    to 49,999,999
      1 2 3 4
    3A 1,000,000
    to 9,999,999   1 2 3 4
    2A 750,000 to 999,999   1 2 3 4
    1A 500,000 to 749,999   1 2 3 4
    BA 300,000 to 499,999   1 2 3 4
    BB 200,000 to 299,999   1 2 3 4
    CB 125,000 to 199,999   1 2 3 4
    CC 75,000 to 124,999   1 2 3 4
    DC 50,000 to 74,999   1 2 3 4
    DD 35,000 to 49,999   1 2 3 4
    EE 20,000 to 34,999   1 2 3 4
    FF 10,000 to 19,999   1 2 3 4
    GG 5,000 to 9,999   1 2 3 4
    HH up to   4,999   1 2 3 4
     
    Rating Classification Composite Credit Appraisal
    Based on Number of Employees)     Good Fair Limited
    1R 10 and over
            2 3 4
    2R 1 to 9
            2 3 4
     
    Key To Employee Range
    Applicable to lines of business not covered by the D&B Rating system
    ER1 1,000 or more
    ER2 500-999
    ER3 100-499
    ER4 50-99
    ER5 20-49
    ER6 10-19
    ER7 5-9
    ER8 1-4
    ERN Not Available
    D&B Viability Rating
    The D&B Viability Rating uses D&B's proprietary analytics to compare the most predictive business risk indicators and delivers a highly reliable assessment of the probability that a company will no longer be in business within the next 12 months. The D&B Viability Rating is made up of 4 components: the Viability Score, the Portfolio Comparison, the Data Depth Indicator, and the Company Profile.
    Viability Score
    Viability Score is the first of four components within the D&B Viability Rating. It is a high-level risk indicator that assesses the probability that a company will no longer be in business within the next 12 months, compared to all US businesses within the D&B database. A business is no longer viable when it goes out of business, becomes dormant/ inactive or files for bankruptcy. The ranking ranges from 1 to 9 where 9 reflects the highest probability of becoming no longer viable and 1 reflects the lowest probability.
    NOTE: The Viability Score is best used when ranking all businesses within your portfolio based on the probability of becoming no longer viable.
    Portfolio Comparison
    Portfolio Comparison is the second of four components within the D&B Viability Rating. Portfolio Comparison is a more detailed risk indicator that assesses the viability of a company compared to similar businesses within the same model segment which are determined by the amount and type of data available. A business is no longer viable when it goes out of business, becomes dormant/ inactive or files for bankruptcy. Every business within the D&B database falls into 1 of the following 4 profile segments:
    • Available Financial Data
    • Established Trade Payments
    • Limited Trade Payments
    • Firmographics and Business Activity
    The Portfolio Comparison ranking ranges from 1 to 9 where 9 reflects the highest probability of becoming no longer viable and 1 reflects the lowest probability.
    NOTE: The Portfolio Comparison is best used when analyzing the individual risk level of a company compared to businesses within the same profile segment.
    Data Depth Indicator
    Data Depth Indicator is the third of four components within the D&B Viability Rating. The Depth of Data Indicator presents the level of data available for a company. Data depth assists in the assessment of whether a company will no longer be viable and includes the following:
    • Financial Attributes
    • Commercial Trading Activity
    • Firmographics
    The level of data is represented by a letter on a scale of A - G where A reflects the greatest level of predictive data to make a highly reliable assessment of company viability, and G reflects a minimal level of data which can be considered descriptive. The more comprehensive the data, the more precise the overall D&B Viability Rating becomes. If a company has been placed in the Special Category, a letter ranging from H-M will be assigned to identify the specific reason. Reference the chart below for details.

    Rating Description
    A Rich Firmographics,Extensive Commercial Trading Activity and Comprehensive Financial Attributes
    B Rich Firmographics,Extensive Commercial Trading Activity and Basic Financial Attributes
    C Rich Firmographics,Extensive Commercial Trading Activity and No Financial Attributes
    D Rich Firmographics,Partial Commercial Trading Activity and No Financial Attributes
    E Rich Firmographics,Sparse Commercial Trading Activity and No Financial Attributes
    F Basic Firmographics,Trace Commercial Trading Activity and No Financial Attributes
    G Basic Firmographics and No Financial Attributes

    Rating Special Category Description
    H Out of business -Business i.e. either Bankrupt(Chapter 7) or an officer or owner of the business confirmed they no longer operate and are out of business.
    I Unable to confirm Designation -D&B is unable to confirm active operation at a specific location due to the business showing limited to no business activity and multiple sign of inactivity(e.g. :Disconnected phone,Vacant address, No longer in a telephone directory etc.).
    J Bankruptcy -Business has filed for chapter 11 bankruptcy and the plan of recognition not yet confirmed.
    K High Risk (Severe Risk) -Business displays characteristics of misrepresentations.
    L Self reported Duns supported Record - Business' request for DUNS number requires an investigation or confirmation of information from D&B.
    M Business Deterioration(Severe Risk) -Business displays characteristics of financial distress,including sign of current or imminent business failure or operating difficulty.
    Company Profile
    Company Profile is the fourth of four components within the D&B Viability Rating. The Company Profile describes a company based on a combination of 4 categories:
    • Financial Data
    • Trade Payments
    • Company Size
    • Years in Business
    A company is characterized by a letter which ranges from A - X; with each letter representing a combination of the 4 categories that make up the company's profile. For example, "A" describes a company with a comprehensive level data, which has been in business 5+ years, with 50+ employees or $500K+ in Sales, while "X" reflects a company with a minimal level data, in business <5 years, with <10 employees or <$10K in Sales. "Y" and "Z" reflect a Branch and Subsidiary, respectively.

    Ranking Financial Data Total Payments Company Size Years in business
    A Available Available:3+Trade Large:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+ Established 5+
    BAvailableAvailable:3+TradeLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Young:<5
    CAvailableAvailable:3+TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KEstablished 5+
    DAvailableAvailable:3+TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KYoung:<5
    EAvailableAvailable:3+TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingEstablished 5+
    FAvailableAvailable:3+TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingYoung:<5
    GNot availableAvailable:3+TradeLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Established 5+
    HNot vailableAvailable:3+TradeLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Young:<5
    INot availableAvailable:3+TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KEstablished 5+
    JNot AvailableAvailable:3+TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KYoung:<5
    KNot availableAvailable:3+TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingEstablished 5+
    LNot availableAvailable:3+TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingYoung:<5
    MNot availableAvailable:1-2TradeLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Established 5+
    NNot vailableAvailable:1-2TradeLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Young:<5
    ONot availableAvailable:1-2TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KEstablished 5+
    PNot availableAvailable:1-2TradeMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KYoung:<5
    QNot availableAvailable:1-2TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingEstablished 5+
    RNot availableAvailable:3+TradeSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingYoung:<5
    SNot availableNot availableLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Established 5+
    TNot availableNot availableLarge:Employees:50+ or Sales:$500K+Young:<5
    UNot availableNot availableMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KEstablished 5+
    VNot availableNot availableMedium:Employee:100-499 or Scale:$100K-$499KYoung:<5
    WNot availableNot availableSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingEstablished 5+
    XNot availableNot availableSmall:Employee:<10 or Scales:<10K or MissingYoung:<5
    YBranch­­­
    ZSubsidiary­­­
    D-U-N-S®Number (Data Universal Numbering System)
    The D&B D-U-N-S Number is a non-indicative, nine-digit number assigned to each business location in the D&B database having a unique, separate, and distinct operation, and is maintained solely by D&B. The D&B D-U-N-S Number is used by industries and organizations around the world as a global standard for business identification and tracking. If you don`t have a D-U-N-S Number, you can get one for free through the SBS site.
    DunsDemand Letter
    The DunsDemand Letter is a letter sent by D&B Receivable Management Services (RMS) on your behalf requesting your customer's payment of an unpaid balance. This letter will be sent on D&B RMS letterhead and will have a tear-off remittance included for your customer to mail their payment directly to you. There are no follow-up letters or personal calls with this service. Your letter will be sent 24-48 hours after the placement of your order. You will be notified when the DunsDemand Letter has been sent, and will receive updates from the collector on the progress of your order via email and in your Portfolio.
    DunsDemand Letter Series
    The DunsDemand Letter Series is a series of three demand letters sent within a 45-day period with increasingly severe messages. These letters are sent on D&B Receivable Management Services (RMS) letterhead and have a tear-off remittance included for your customers to mail their payment directly to you. There are no personal calls with this service. The first letter will be sent 24-48 hours after the placement of your order. You will be notified when the DunsDemand Letters have been sent, and will receive updates from the collector on the progress of your order via email and in your Portfolio.
    DUNSRight
    DUNSRight is the data quality process that ensures that you get the most accurate and complete information available. Learn more about D&B Data Quality.
    E
    eBIR
    The BIR provides an overall profile of a company, including financial information, payment history and trends, history of a business, ownership details, operational information, and details on related firms and special events (such as business moves, fires and other disasters, and quarterly performance). It also includes the D&B Rating which shows the financial size (net worth) of a business and a risk indicator.
    eLogo
    eLogo is an electronic logo showing that your company is registered with D&B and not a high-risk business according to the D&B data. eLogo can be used on a website, printed materials, email signatures etc..
    Employees Here
    Total number of employees at this location.
    Employees Total
    Total number of employees for all locations of the business.
    eUpdate
    eUpdate is a simple tool you can use to ensure our database contains the most up-to-date information on your business. eUpdate provides you with the ability to review and update your company profile online, free of charge, 24 hours a day. You can access eUpdate through the Company Data section of your Portfolio on the SBS site.
    Executive Summary Section
    Reviews an analysis of credit capacity (size, overall financial condition, payment capacity) to gauge the firm's ability to take on additional credit.
    Exempt Organization
    Typically a nonprofit or government organization such as a library.
    F
    Family Tree
    As companies today rapidly grow and change, it's more important than ever to understand how an organization is structured. D&B's Family Tree allows you to more easily view and assess risk across different parts of an organization by showing the linkage relationship between different companies within a corporate family.
    Linkage is reflected in D&B's database when one business entity has financial or legal responsibility for and control over another, creating a Headquarters/Branch or Parent/Subsidiary relationship. Linkage is updated monthly and reflects mergers, acquisitions, openings, and closings.
    The following family members are shown in D&B's database:
    • Parent: a corporation that owns more than 50% of another corporation. A parent can also be a headquarters if it owns branches.
    • Headquarters: a family member that has branches or divisions reporting to it and is financially responsible for those branches or divisions. If headquarters is more than 50% owned by another corporation, it will also be a subsidiary. If it owns more than 50% of another corporation, then it is also a parent.
    • Domestic ultimate: a subsidiary within the global family tree that is the highest-ranking member within a specific country.
    • Global ultimate: the top most responsible entity within the corporate family tree.
    • Branch: a secondary location of a company's headquarters. It has no legal responsibility for its debts, even though bills may be paid from the branch location.
    • Subsidiary: a corporation that is more than 50% owned by another corporation and will have a different legal business name from its parent company. There are also single location subsidiaries where the subsidiary does not have anything reporting to it.
    • Division: like a branch, it is a secondary location of a business. A division carries out specific business operations related to the headquarters under a divisional name. Divisions look similar to branches in D&B WorldBase and carry a branch code.
    • Affiliates: companies that are related to a business through common ownership by the direct parent company. All of them share the same parent company. A direct parent company is a corporation that owns more than 50% of another corporation's capital stock.
    If a business has more than 25 branches, subsidiaries, or affiliates, you will be notified. You can use D&B's Global Family Linkage product to purchase the complete list.
    Note that there are other types of family relationships that are not linked in the D&B database because the affiliated company has no legal obligation for the debts of the other company. Examples of these types of relationships include businesses affiliated through common officers or situations where one corporation owns a part or minority interest in another (50% or less).
    Finance Section
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, this section includes balance sheets, financial income statements and management estimates or projections when available. If provided, up to three years of comparative summaries may be displayed here. This data can help you to assess:
    • A company's ability to meet current debt by comparing all liquid assets to current debt, or all liquid assets plus inventory to current debt.
    • The amount of capital provided by creditors compared to capital invested by the owners.
    • The amount of sales compared to total assets of the company.
    Commentary on absence of financial information may also appear in this section, for example, "A financial statement was declined by management." An explanation of the financial information may also be provided and my include a narrative indicating the source of the data (i.e., "Submitted by ..."), as well as an explanation of certain financial statement items. The company may also add other comments in this section, such as "Current cash is low because a recent expansion was financed with cash rather than loans."
    Financial Condition
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, this section provides an overview of a company's financial statement with a designation of Strong, Good, Fair or Unbalanced. Financial Condition is calculated by reviewing up to 11 financial ratios and comparing them to industry averages for each of the company's lines of business.
    Financial statement
    A formal record of the financial activities and snapshot of a business's financial health.
    Financial statements typically include four basic financial statements, accompanied by a management discussion and analysis:
    Balance sheet: also referred to as statement of financial position or condition, reports on a company's assets, liabilities, and Ownership equity at a given point in time.
    Income statement: also referred to as Profit and Loss statement (or a "P&L"), reports on a company's income, expenses, and profits over a period of time. Profit & Loss account provide information on the operation of the enterprise. These include sale and the various expenses incurred during the processing state.
    Statement of retained earnings: explains the changes in a company's retained earnings over the reporting period.
    Statement of cash flows: reports on a company's cash flow activities, particularly its operating, investing and financing activities.
    Financial Stress
    D&B defines a financially stressed company as on e that has ceased operations following assignment or bankruptcy, ceased o perations with loss to creditors, voluntarily withdrawn from business operation leaving unpaid obligations or is in receivership, reorganization, or has made an arrangement for the benefit of creditors. Note: Voluntary discontinuance invol ving no loss to creditors is not defined as financial stress.
     
    Financial Stress Norms
    Financial Stress Score Norms represent the average score and percentile for all companies with similar demographic characteristics. The Norms can be used to benchmark where this firm stands in relation to the norm for its peer group.
    Financial Stress Score
    What is a Financial Stress Score?
    The Financial Stress Score (FSS) predicts the likelihood of business failure over the next 12 months. D&B defines business failure as a company that obtains legal relief from its creditors, ceases business operations without paying all its creditors in full, voluntarily withdraws from business operations and leaves unpaid obligations, goes into receivership or reorganization, or makes an arrangement for the benefit of creditors, based on the information in D&B's commercial database. The score ranges from 1,001 to 1,875, where 1,001 represents the highest probability and 1,875 represents the lowest probability of business failure.

    What is a Financial Stress Risk Class
    A Financial Stress Risk Class of 1-5 is a segmentation of the scoreable universe into five distinct groups where a one (1) represents businesses that have the lowest probability of failure, and five (5) represents businesses with the highest probability of failure. This Class enables a customer to quickly segment their new and existing accounts into various risk segments to determine appropriate marketing or credit policies. Note: Financial Stress Scores are not calculated for those businesses designated as "Discontinued at This Location", "Open Bankruptcy", or "Higher Risk". These records are automatically assigned a score of zero (0).

    What is a Financial Stress Score Percentile?
    The Financial Stress Score Percentile is a 1-100 ranking where a percentile of 1 has the highest probability of failure and a percentile of 100 has the lowest probability of failure.

    How is Financial Stress (aka: Business Failure) defined?
    D&B defines a financially stressed company as one that has ceased operations following assignment of bankruptcy, ceased operations with loss to creditors, voluntarily withdrawn from business operation leaving unpaid obligations or is in receivership, reorganization, or has made an arrangement for the benefit of creditors. Note: Voluntary discontinuance involving no loss to creditors is not defined as financial stress.

    Description of Classes should always be:
    Class 1 - Low
    Class 2 - Moderate
    Class 3 - Average
    Class 4 - Significant
    Class 5 - High
    Financial Stress Summary
    The company's Financial Stress Class is given as a 1 to 5 rating and as a percentile ranking to determine the likelihood of business experiencing financial stress as compared to the national average and the company's industry.
    G
    Gold Membership
    A subscription plan that was discontinued effective February 1, 2004.
    H
    Headquarters
    A headquarters is a business location that has branches or divisions reporting to it, and is legally responsible for those branches or divisions. If the headquarters is more than 50 percent owned by another corporation, it will also be a subsidiary. If it owns more than 50 percent of another corporation, then it is also a parent.
    High Risk
    A company is defined by D&B as being high risk if D&B has indicators that point to bankruptcy, misrepresentation or business determination. The high risk classification is used to determine if your company qualifies for Promoter products. If you think you were wrongly classified as high risk, you can talk to our high risk specialists directly at 1-800-234-DUNS extension 7006.
    History Indicator
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the History Indicator is designated as:
    • Clear - Certain minimal information necessary for D&B rating consideration is contained in the report. It also means the report is free of negative information which could cause the selection of other History captions or designation as a potential higher-risk case.
    • Incomplete - D&B's file does not contain sufficient information about the background of the business and its significant principals to fully assess risk.
    • Management - D&B's file contains certain unfavorable current or historical information on one or more significant principals associated with this company.
    • Business - D&B's file contains certain unfavorable current or historical information on this company.
    History Section
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the History Section typically includes details on the company's history, including:
    • Incorporation details, par value of shares and ownership information.
    • Background information on management, such as the educational and career history of the company principals.
    • Related companies, including identification of parent, affiliates, subsidiaries and/or branches worldwide.
    The History Section may also include corporate registration details, which can help you to:
    • Verify the existence of a registered organization.
    • Confirm legal information, such as a company's organizational structure, date and state of incorporation.
    • Research possible fraud by reviewing names of principals and business standing within a state.
    I
    ImageScope
    ImageScope can help companies identify perceived strengths and weakness. The service provides an industry payment analysis, D&B rating, key financial ratios and key definitions for their business/industry - allowing customers to examine their evaluations, ratings, scores, and elements affecting their image.
    Industry Comparison
    Process of examining two or more industries in order to discover similarities and differences between them.
    Industry Report
    The Industry Report provides you with the size of a market and the top 25 companies in a given industry, based on geographic parameters. You can use this report to:
    • Understand how the industry pays its bills to help establish your terms of sales.
    • Identify locations of potential prospects and suppliers.
    • Learn about the sales trend of the industry.
    • Create a marketing list to contact the top companies in the industry.
    The Industry Report is divided into three sections:
    National Market Overview - This section provides a national summary of the chosen industry. The concentration of sales looks at the percentage of sales in the top 10 companies versus the size of the total universe. The Location (Map) of Company Headquarters shows where the headquarters or main location of these businesses is located. The Age of Existing companies shows the distribution of new to more established businesses.

    Top 25 Companies Market Dynamics - Based on the geography selected, two pie charts are provided showing the Risk of Late Summary distribution (the likelihood of delinquent payment beyond 60 days) and sales trends for the top 25 companies (increasing, stable or decreasing).

    Top 25 Companies - Identification of the Top 25 Companies within the geography selected based on annual sales. This list can be used to find potential new customers or suppliers.
    InfoTrac
    InfoTrac customers will receive updates of their BIR quarterly for 12 months and also receive a link for adding information to their report.
    J
    Judgment
    A Judgment is the final resolution of a suit; the official court decision regarding the parties' rights and obligations, including whether the plaintiff is entitled to relief defined in the suit.
    K
     
    L
    Legal Filings
    Reported open/closed public filings include bankruptcy, judgments, suits or liens.
    Lien
    A lien is a claim or encumbrance which one party holds against the property of another party until a debt or obligation is satisfied.
    M
    Mailing / Address Labels
    An output option when purchasing Marketing Lists. This output includes one contact name and address with your choice of label format.
    Marketing Assistant
    D&B's subscription plan that bundles marketing services and research reports to help you grow your business.
    Marketing List Formats
    All marketing lists that you purchase are downloaded to your computer in Portable Document Format (PDF). A PDF file is an electronic facsimile of a printed document. This format is used so that your list can be made available to you as soon as it has been purchased. You can print the list directly from your computer following standard printing procedures. If you requested a tab-delimited file, you can also save this file locally to your computer. You will receive an e-mail confirmation of your list purchase.
    Marketing Lists
    Use SBS Marketing Lists to begin finding potential new customers. You can apply a number of geography-based selectors to your list, which can be combined with size, line of business, credit risk or years in business selectors to narrow the scope on your search. Results of your search can be downloaded to your computer as prospect sheets, preformatted telemarketing list, mailing labels and as a data file for a spreadsheet or word processing application.
    Metropolitan Statistical Area
    A geographic entity, defined by the Federal Government based on the concept of a core area with a large population nucleus, plus adjacent communities having a high degree of economic and social integration with that core. Qualification of an MSA requires the presence of a city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or the presence of a urban area and a total population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England).
    MonitoringScope
    MonitoringScope allows customers the opportunity to be notified when significant changes are made within their report. Significant changes include:
  • The business' credit rating
  • Suits, Liens or Judgments against the business
  • Changes in the Paydex score (which indicates how quickly your company pays its bills)
  • Changes to the financial statements
  • Any special event, or other significant news involving the business

  • Every notification includes detailed information about the change that occurred.

    My D&B
    After logging onto the D&B Solutions web site, go to the Manage My Business Credit section of the site to access information on your company, the My Reports/Alerts section for alerts on companies you are tracking, reports and marketing lists you have stored, and the My Account section for information and usage activity on your account.
    N
    NAICS (North American Industry Classification System)
    SIC (Standard Industrial Code) codes are a numbering convention to identify an industry or service a business provides. NAICS codes were created to increase service orientation and recognize new and emerging industries and are more process focused descriptions of what a business does.
    Negative Payment Comments / Information
    Negative Payments consist of unsatisfactory, bad debt, suit-filed, non-sufficient funds, credit refused, placed for collection or repossession trade experiences.
    Net Worth
    The net worth of a business. "E" indicates figures are estimates provided by the owners, partners or officers of the company; "F" means figures were taken from a financial statement. This element offers another view of the company's financial size.
    O
    Operation Section
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, this section provides background information on the business operations of a company. This may include the identity of a parent company, the number of accounts and geographic scope of the business, typical selling terms, and whether the firm owns or leases its facilities. The names and locations of branch operations and subsidiary may also be identified in this section.
    Other Payment Categories
    Miscellaneous indicators of a firm's payment habits, including the highest dollar amounts owed; the highest dollar amounts past due; number and dollar value of cash payments and placed for collection experiences.
    P
    Parent
    A parent is a corporation that owns more than 50 percent of another corporation. The parent company may also be a subsidiary of another corporation. If the parent also has branches/ divisions, then it is also a headquarters. Parents can have both direct and indirect subsidiaries, indirect subsidiaries being those that have another company in between the subsidiary and the parent.
    Password
    A unique password you select to be used in conjunction with a userid.
    PAYDEX® Score
    The PAYDEX Score is D&B's unique dollar-weighted numerical indicator of how a firm paid its bills over the past year, based on trade experiences reported to D&B by various vendors. The D&B PAYDEX Score ranges from 1 to 100, with higher scores indicating better payment performance.
    PAYDEX® Score Key
    Use this key to help you interpret the D&B PAYDEX Score.

    Key to the D&B PAYDEX® Score
    PAYDEX
    Payment
    100 Anticipate
    90 Discount
    80 Prompt
    70 15 Days Beyond Terms
    60 22 Days Beyond Terms
    50 30 Days Beyond Terms
    40 60 Days Beyond Terms
    20 90 Days Beyond Terms
    20 120 Days Beyond Terms
    UN Unavailable
    Payment Details Section
    Found in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the Payment Detail Section displays a listing of recent payments reported to D&B. Each line (up to 80) provides the most recent information secured through company trade tapes and other D&B data collection methods. It's important to note that an unusually large number of transactions during a single month or time period may indicate a seasonal purchasing pattern. The following manners of payment appear most frequently in this section:
    • Antic - payments are received prior to date of invoice (Anticipated).
    • Disc - payments are received within trade discount period (Discount).
    • Ppt - payments are received within terms granted (Prompt).
    • Slow - payments are beyond vendor's terms. For example, "Slow 30" means payments are 30 days past due.
    • Ppt-Slow - some invoices are paid within terms, others are paid beyond terms.
    • (#) -indicates that no manner of payment was provided; the number merely reflects the line where it appears in the listing. For example, (004) means it is the fourth experience listed.
    • Payment Commentary - such as "Cash in Advance," "Account in Dispute," "Credit Refused," or "Placed for Collection" may also display next to trade details. "Placed for Collection" means the account was forwarded to a third party for collection action during the past year.
    Payment Performance Trend
    An element in the Credit eValuator Plus and SelfMonitor Reports that compares a company's dollar-weighted payment performance today to the company's payment performance three months ago. The Payment Performance Trend Arrow shows the payment trend (improving, steady or declining) of the business today to its payment trend three months ago and to an industry average. D&B Payment Index (or PAYDEX) is a dollar-weighted payment calculation on the number of days a business takes to pay based on the terms extended. Up to 875 payment experiences in the D&B trade file are used to dynamically calculate this score.
    Payment Scope
    Payment Scope gives customers the ability to add 5 trade references to increase their PAYDEX score. The customer will also receive a Payment Analysis Report on their company, an informational booklet, and 12 months of monitoring on their PAYDEX score.
    Payment Summary by Industry
    An overview of how a firm pays suppliers in up to 10 lines of business where it has recorded the highest number of credit transactions. This information can help you evaluate how quickly you can expect to be paid, based on a company's payment history with your industry peers.
    Payment Summary Section
    This section highlights how quickly a company is likely to pay its bills in the future by reviewing its payment patterns with other vendors in the past, as reported to D&B. Payment performance is outlined relative to aging, dollar amounts, and industry groupings. Specific information includes:
  • The D&B PAYDEX® Score
  • Payment Summary by Industry
  • Other Payment Categories
  • Payment Trend Profile Report
    The Payment Trend Profile is included in the Credit eValuator Plus, Business Information, SelfMonitor, and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports. The Payment Trends Profile expands on the payment information available in the reports to help you better understand the payment patterns, history and trends of a particular business. Key features of the Payment Trends Profile include:

    Visual summaries: Designed for at-a-glance reading, the profile's charts and summaries help you more quickly assess payment habits of customers and prospects.

    Historical PAYDEX trends: D&B's PAYDEX is an exclusive, dollar-weighted numerical indicator of how a firm paid its bills over the past year, based on payment experiences reported to D&B. Get the historical view here, with up to 12 months of PAYDEX history reported and charted.

    Industry payment benchmarks: Compare this business's payment patterns with the industry segment to help you establish appropriate credit lines. You get the current industry median, as well as the industry range (expressed as upper and lower quartiles), for the past 4 quarters.
    Payment Trends
    Spot trends in a company's business by analyzing how it pays its bills. D&B's PAYDEX Score compares a company's payment records with others in the industry -- for up to two years. This unique indicator gives you an instant overview of how a firm pays its bills. It is calculated based on up to 875 payment experiences reported to D&B by various sources.
    Payment Trend by Industry
    See at a glance how the company's payment habits, as reported by D&B, compare with those of other companies in its line of business.
    Portfolio
    The My Reports/Alerts section is where purchased reports and marketing lists are stored. This section is also where you can view alerts for companies on which you have purchased a report or that you have added to your WatchList.
    Predictive Scoring / Models
    Predictive scoring is the process of using historical information to predict future outcomes. It involves identifying the risks inherent in a future decision by examining the relationship between historical information and the future event. In essence, it is an objective and statistically derived counterpart to subjective, intuitive assessments. The objective of a score is to report the risk involved in a given decision. Predictive Scoring allows you to rank order accounts based on the probability of an event occurring. Predictive Scoring represents a statistical probability, not a guarantee. Examples include the Risk of Late Payment Indicator in the Credit eValuator Plus Report and the Commercial Credit and Financial Stress Scores in the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports.
    Primary SIC
    Represents a company's activity with the largest percentage of sales revenue. See SIC Code.
    Public Filings
    This term is used to identify bankruptcy filing, suit, lien, and judgment information obtained from Federal and State court houses for a company.
    Q
    Quality
    DUNSRight is the data quality process that ensures that you get the most accurate and complete information available. Learn more about D&B Data Quality.
    R
    Rating or D&B Rating
    The D&B Rating can help you quickly assess a firm's size and composite credit appraisal, based on information in a company's interim or fiscal balance sheet and an overall evaluation of the firm's creditworthiness.

    The "5A" to "HH" Rating Classifications reflect company size based on worth or equity as computed by D&B. Company size can be an effective indicator of credit capacity. These Ratings are assigned to businesses that have supplied D&B with a current financial statement.

    The Composite Credit Appraisal is a number, 1 through 4, that makes up the second half of the company's rating and reflects D&B's overall assessment of that firm's creditworthiness. The Composite Credit Appraisal is based on D&B’s analysis of company payments, financial inform ation, public records, business age and other important factors (when available).

    Note: A "2" is the highest Composite Credit Appraisal a company not supplying D&B with current financial information can receive.
    The "1R" and "2R" Rating categories refl ect company size based on the total number of employees for the business. They are assigned to company files that do not contain a current financial statement.

    ER (Employee Range) Ratings apply to certain lines of business that do not lend themselves to classification under the D&B Rating system. Instead, we assign these types of businesses an Employee Range symbol base d on the number of people employed. No other significance should be attached to this symbol.

    For example, a rating of "ER7" means there are between fi ve and nine employees in the company. "ERN" should not be interpreted negatively. It simply means we do not have information indicating how many people are employed at this firm.

    The D&B Rating field in a report may also display the following designations when certain conditions are present:
    The '- -' Symbol: This rep resents the absence of a D&B Rating and should not be interpreted as indicating that credit should be denied. It means that the information available to D&B does not permit us to classify the company within our Rating Key and that further inquir y should be made before reaching a credit decision. Some reasons for using the "- -" symbol include: deficit net worth, bankruptcy proceedings, lack of sufficient payment information or incomplete history indicator.
    DS (DUNS Support): This ind icates that the information available to D&B does not permit us to classify the company within our Rating Key. When ordering these reports, an investigation can be performed and results sent to you at your request for an additional fee.
    INV (Investigation Being Conducted): When an "INV" appears, it means an investigation is being conducte d on this business to get the most current details.
    NQ (Not Quoted): This is ge nerally assigned when a business has been confirmed as no longer active at the locat ion, or when D&B is unable to confirm active operations. It may also appear on some branch reports, when the branch is located in the same city as the headquarters.

    Rating Classification Composite Credit Appraisal
    (Based on Worth from Interim or Fiscal Balance Sheet)   High Good Fair Limited
    5A
    $50,000,000
      and over
      1 2 3 4
    4A
    10,000,000
    to 49,999,999
      1 2 3 4
    3A 1,000,000
    to 9,999,999   1 2 3 4
    2A 750,000 to 999,999   1 2 3 4
    1A 500,000 to 749,999   1 2 3 4
    BA 300,000 to 499,999   1 2 3 4
    BB 200,000 to 299,999   1 2 3 4
    CB 125,000 to 199,999   1 2 3 4
    CC 75,000 to 124,999   1 2 3 4
    DC 50,000 to 74,999   1 2 3 4
    DD 35,000 to 49,999   1 2 3 4
    EE 20,000 to 34,999   1 2 3 4
    FF 10,000 to 19,999   1 2 3 4
    GG 5,000 to 9,999   1 2 3 4
    HH up to   4,999   1 2 3 4
     
    Rating Classification Composite Credit Appraisal
    Based on Number of Employees)     Good Fair Limited
    1R 10 and over
            2 3 4
    2R 1 to 9
            2 3 4
     
    Key To Employee Range
    Applicable to lines of business not covered by the D&B Rating system
    ER1 1,000 or more
    ER2 500-999
    ER3 100-499
    ER4 50-99
    ER5 20-49
    ER6 10-19
    ER7 5-9
    ER8 1-4
    ERN Not Available
    Receivable Management Services
    All collection services are provided by Receivable Management Services (RMS). RMS is a strategic partner of D&B, but is an independent company that is not affiliated with The D&B Corporation. RMS maintains a trained, professional staff that will aggressively seek to recover your money while respecting your valuable customer relationship.
    Refund Policy
    View the D&B Solutions Return Policy.
    Report Forwarding
    Report Forwarding is a service that allows you to have your Business Information Report forwarded directly to business partners of your choice. Report Forwarding includes a customizable cover letter and the ability to add your own attachments.
    Return Policy
    View the D&B Solutions Return Policy.
    Risk Advisor
    D&B's subscription plan for the credit manager who conducts ongoing credit evaluations of their own and others' credit.
    Risk of Late Payment
    Risk of Late Payment is an element in the Credit eValuator Plus and SelfMonitor Reports which predicts the risk that a company will pay on time versus the risk of other companies in the same industry. The risk dial () shows the potential risk of late or delinquent payment. The dial - from lower risk to higher risk - shows the risk that a company will pay in a severely delinquent manner (90+ days past terms) relative to other businesses in the D&B database. Higher risk (red) indicates that a company is more likely to pay severely beyond terms, and lower risk (green) indicates that a company has a low likelihood of paying in a severely delinquent manner. The rating is based on a number of credit factors determined by D&B's sophisticated analytical.
    Risk Summary
    Identification of the Risk of Late Payment and Payment Performance Trend indicators in the Credit eValuator Plus. The Risk of Late Payment is based on the D&B Credit Score, and the Payment Performance Trend is based on D&B's PAYDEX score. Both are indicators of short-term payment performance.
    S
    Sales
    Sales information provides a snapshot of a company's financial size in terms of sales/revenue volume. "Projected" indicates an estimated sales volume provided by management; "F" means figures were taken from an income statement. See the Finance Section for more details.
    Sales Trend
    A Sales Trend is based upon additional data extracted from D&B's credit and financial statement databases. Sales data is captured on the percentage of growth or decline in a company's annual sales and employment over three and five year periods. This data is compared to the company's reported financial data to determine trend against the industry.
    Secured / Unsecured
    In the Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the Financing section will identify Secured, Unsecured or Secured/Unsecured when financing statements have been issued. A financing statement is proof of a security interest in personal property whereas a deed, properly recorded at a County Recorders Office, is proof of ownership for real property (land and buildings). In the D&B Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the notation that FINANCING is secured means that a company's accounts receivables, inventory and/or other liquid assets have been pledged.
    Security
    At D&B, we are serious about securely transferring valuable information. This is true whether it is information you send to us or information we send to you. When you sign up or access member areas of the D&B Solutions web site, your information is encrypted using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL. Our site uses SSL to keep your user and credit card information confidential, as well as encrypting the information we provide to you. Our site's SSL certificate uses 128-bit encryption and was issued by Verisign, Inc. For details regarding the certificate, click on the closed padlock in the corner of your browser's window. This padlock appears on every secure page used on this site. You can be confident that all your transactions are encrypted and delivered securely.
    SelfMonitor
    The SelfMonitor Report provides you with the latest information that your vendors, banks, suppliers and customers see when they access your D&B credit information to make critical decisions regarding your business. The SelfMonitor Report includes a Comprehensive Insight Plus Report on your business, a Risk of Late Payment Dial, Payment Performance Trend Arrow, Payment Trend Profile Report, and Credit Limit Recommendation, in addition to an instruction guide, which gives you advice on how to use each data element in the report to answer specific questions about your business. SelfMonitor also comes with the Auto-Refresh feature, which means that you will receive the most up-to-date information available from D&B every time you access your report for a full year.
    SIC Code
    The SIC code is a standardized numbering system developed by the Federal Government that classifies business establishments according to their industries. It is particularly helpful when you're looking to segment markets, analyze customer relationships, and conduct general business research. SIC codes divide all major economic activity into ten major divisions. Businesses are then further classified within each division. The first two digits in the code represent a company's major industry affiliation and its subdivision. For example, the first two digits in "Manufacturing," one of the ten major SIC divisions, range from 20 to 39. The remaining digits break down the divisions into specific activities and "sub-industries." If more than one SIC Code is listed, the first one is the company's primary line of business, with others comprising at least 10 percent of the company's revenue. A maximum of six SICs will be listed for a company. Details can be found in the Operations Section of the Business Informatin Report.
    Silver Membership
    A subscription plan that was discontinued effective February 1, 2004.
    Special Events
    Special Events alert you to any recent developments D&B learns about that may impact your potential relationship with a firm, such as bankruptcy filings, changes in ownership, acquisitions and other events. Information reported in this section may also include announcements on the release of earnings reports. Special Events may help explain unusual company trends. For example, a change in ownership could have an impact on manner of payment, or decreased production may reflect an unexpected interruption in factory operations (i.e., labor strike or fire).
    SSL
    At D&B, we are serious about securely transferring valuable information. This is true whether it is information you send to us or information we send to you. When you sign up or access member areas of the D&B Solutions web site, your information is encrypted using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). Both Netscape Navigator and Internet Explorer support SSL. Our site uses SSL to keep your user and credit card information confidential, as well as encrypting the information we provide to you. Our site's SSL certificate uses 128-bit encryption and was issued by Verisign, Inc. For details regarding the certificate, click on the closed padlock in the corner of your browser's window. This padlock appears on every secure page used on this site. You can be confident that all your transactions are encrypted and delivered securely.
    Standard Industrial Code (SIC)
    The SIC code is a standardized numbering system developed by the Federal Government that classifies business establishments according to their industries. It is particularly helpful when you're looking to segment markets, analyze customer relationships, and conduct general business research. SIC codes divide all major economic activity into ten major divisions. Businesses are then further classified within each division. The first two digits in the code represent a company's major industry affiliation and its subdivision. For example, the first two digits in "Manufacturing," one of the ten major SIC divisions, range from 20 to 39. The remaining digits break down the divisions into specific activities and "sub-industries." If more than one SIC Code is listed, the first one is the company's primary line of business, with others comprising at least 10 percent of the company's revenue. A maximum of six SICs will be listed for a company. Details can be found in the Operations Section of the Business Informatin Report.
    Started (Control Date)
    Indicates the year the company was started or present management took control.
    Statement Update Section
    This section includes information D&B has obtained directly from the company since our last full interview with the principals of the business. It may include pertinent information such as updated financial data, commentary on recent business trends or operating details.
    Subscriptions
    SBS offers four monthly subscription plans to meet your needs. Subscriptions include free and discounted reports that can help you to protect and grow your business. Each plan is tailored to the different needs of our users, so you are sure to find a plan that works for you. Subscriptions include the Business Advantage plan to help you better manage risk and your receivables, the Risk Advisor plan to help your build and manage your D&B credit file, the introductory Credit Basics pan, and the Marketing Assistant plan to help find new customers/markets and grow your business.
    Subsidiary
    A subsidiary is a corporation that is more than 50 percent owned by another corporation and will have a different legal business name from its parent company. A subsidiary must be either a single location, a headquarters, or a parent. A subsidiary may have branches and/or subsidiaries of its own.
    Suit
    A proceeding filed by a plaintiff(s) against a defendant(s) in a court of law, in which the plaintiff(s) seeks monetary or non-monetary relief.
    Summary Analysis Section
    This section displays the current D&B Rating, when it was assigned and why. Additional content may include rating changes that have occurred during the past year so you can spot trends and evaluate the stability of a firm over time.
    Summary of Payment Habits
    Gives you a detailed look at payment practices reported to D&B to support your assessment, such as number of payment experiences by dollar amount and percent paid promptly.
    Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating
    The D&B Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating (a.k.a. SER Rating) predicts the likelihood that a company will obtain legal relief from creditors or cease operations without paying creditors in full over next 12 months. The SER rating is derived from D&B’s Financial Stress Score that is calculated using a statistically valid model derived from D&B’s extensive data files. The Financial Stress Score percentile is the basis for the SER Rating. Once the Financial Stress Score percentile has been calculated for a business, a secondary set of rules are applied to determine the SER Rating. The SER Rating provides a normalized probability of supplier failure on a global basis; its statistical model more accurately reflects the risk of global supplier failure.
    The SER Rating harmonizes local countries’ failure ratings into a single understandable Class of 1 - 9. The SER Rating Class segments the scoreable universe into nine distinct risk groups where a one (1) represents businesses that have the lowest probability of supplier failure, and a nine (9) represents businesses with the highest probability of supplier failure.
    The Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating Class is available for businesses in the United States and several other countries. The following example provides SER Rating Classes for the United States:
      Supplier Evaluation
      Risk Rating
      Percentile
      Range
      Failure Rate Percentage of the
      Population
        Low High    
      1 98 100 0.06 3
      2 92 97 0.16 6
      3 80 91 0.35 12
      4 52 79 0.88 28
      5 38 51 1.72 14
      6 31 37 2.22 7
      7 18 30 3.19 13
      8 4 17 6.96 14
      9 1 3 17.95 3

    The following business attributes contribute to a company’s SER Rating Class:

    General Business Information
    • Ownership of Facilities
    • Financial Condition of the Company
    • Total Number of Employees
    • Years Since Change in Management
    • Company Type
    • Years in Business
    • Region

    Public Information
    • Business Deterioration
    • Number of Suits, Liens, Judgments, and Prior Bankruptcies
    • Dollars of Suits, Liens, Judgments, and Prior Bankruptcies
    • Total Number of UCC Filings
    • History indicator

    Financial Information
    • Existence of Balance Sheets
    • Age of Balance Sheets
    • Quick Ratio
    • Current Ratio
    • The Company’s Net Worth Indicator
    • Total Assets
    • Current Liabilities
    • Net Profit after Taxes
    • Trends from Previous Statement

    Payment Experiences
    • Most Recent PAYDEX
    • Difference Between PAYDEX and Industry Norm
    • Variance of PAYDEX
    • Number of Payment Experiences
    • Percent of Satisfactory Payment Experiences
    • Percent of Payment Experiences Past Due (Days Past Due Categories: 31-60, 61-90, more than 90, etc.)
    • Dollar Amount of Total Payment Experiences
    • Dollar Amount of Satisfactory Payment Experiences
    • Dollar Amount of Negative Payment Experiences (Days Past Due Categories: 31-60, 61-90, more than 90, etc.)
    The Financial Stress Score Class and the Supplier Evaluation Rating Class measure different types of risk. The Financial Stress Score Class provides a relative ranking in the United States. It does not address the amount of global risk, which is the probability of global supplier failure. The SER Rating provides a normalized probability of supplier failure on a global basis; its statistical model more accurately reflects the risk of global supplier failure.
    A company can have a good Financial Stress Score Class in the United States, but have a relatively higher Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating Class; given this scenario, the company has a higher probability of failure on a global basis.
    A company's Financial Stress Score Class can be the same over two consecutive periods of observations; during those same two consecutive periods of observation, its Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating Class can change.

    Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating Summary
    The D&B Supplier Evaluation Risk Rating (a.k.a. SER Rating) predicts the likelihood that a company will obtain legal relief from creditors or cease operations without paying creditors in full over next 12 months. The SER Rating provides a normalized probability of supplier failure on a global basis; its statistical model more accurately reflects the risk of global supplier failure. The SER Rating harmonizes local countries' failure ratings into a single understandable Class of 1 - 9.
    T
    Tax Exempt Certificate
    A statement from a customer indicating that they are either an exempt organization (i.e. Red Cross, government, other nonprofit) OR they are using the purchase in an exempt manner (i.e. for use in manufacturing).
    Telephone Directory
    The Telephone Directory is an output option when purchasing Marketing Lists. This output includes one contact name, telephone number and address.
    Tracking Folders
    Tracking Folders were the foldering convention on old SBS web site where reports and alerts were stored This functionality has been replaced on the new SBS site with the Portfolio and WatchList.
    Trend Sales
    Found in the Company Profile Report / Sales Information section, Trend Sales is the last (most current) year of the three year period.
    U
    UCC (Uniform Commercial Code) Filing
    By properly filing a financing statement at the state and/or local jurisdiction, the security interest of the secured party is perfected. The document contains the names and addresses of the debtor and the secured party along with a description of the collateral (security interest). A financing statement is proof of a security interest in personal property whereas a deed, properly recorded at a County Recorders Office, is proof of ownership for real property (land and buildings).

    In the D&B Business Information and Comprehensive Insight Plus Reports, the notation that FINANCING is secured means that a companies accounts receivables, inventory and/or other liquid assets have been pledged.
    Uniform Sales & Use Tax Certificate
    A multi-state certificate.
    V
    Verification Code
    For your security, we collect the customer 3 or 4 digit verification number from your bank card to prevent the fraudulent use of your account. The customer verification number is a non-embossed number located on your card that cannot be obtained easily by using an imprint of your card or simply copying down the account number. This verification code is called CID for American Express cards, and CVC2 or CVV2 for Visa, MasterCard and Discover. This verification number helps us to validate that this card is in your possession and that the number is legitimate.
    W
    Watchlist
    The Watchlist is an optional feature that enables you to receive alerts on any company in the D&B database, whether or not you have purchased a report on that company. These alerts are sent to you by email and are stored in your Portfolio.
    Web Logo
    D&B's Web Logo program promotes your business's credibility by letting visitors to your company's web site know that you are D&B listed. It provides your site with additional legitimacy.
    Worth
    The net worth of the business. "E" indicates figures are estimates provided by the owners, partners or officers of the company; "F" means figures were taken from a financial statement. This element offers another view of the company's financial size. See the Finance Section for details.
    X
     
    Y
     
    Z